Athina Konstantinidou, Efi Nisiforou

Efi Nisiforou is a Lecturer in Distance Education, in the School of Education, University of Nicosia. Her research interests include human-computer interaction (HCI), technology-enhanced learning (TEL), instructional design and evaluation of online learning environments, personalised learning and educational neuroscience and, integration of new technologies in all levels of education. As a researcher, she has published papers in international conferences and journals and has received EU research funding. She also participates as a project manager, coordinator and national partner in various research projects.

Athina Konstantinidou is an EFL teacher, with a BA in English Language and Literature from Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. During her studies, she participated in Erasmus+ programs in Hungary and Spain, with full scholarships as a student and intern. She is currently a Master’s student in Educational Technology, at University of Nicosia.


ARCS model and Gamification in Online Training: Impact on Adult Learners’ Motivation
Athina Konstantinidou, Efi Nisiforou

It has been observed that a great number of adult students registered in online courses of lifelong learning, such as MOOCs, fail to complete their studies (Bakar, Yusof, Iahad & Ahmad, 2017; Pursel, Zhang, Jablokow, Choi & Velegol, 2017). Even though there is a plethora of reasons why students drop out, motivation plays a crucial role in the success of online learning. Studies suggest that a well-designed course can enhance students’ motivation in participating and ultimately finishing their studies (Αυγουστής, Σοφός & Απόστολος, 2013). For this reason, gamification has been researched as a motivational mechanism which can be incorporated into online programs. However, there is lack of evidence in reference to whether it should be implemented as it is or in accordance with an established motivational design framework. In this particular research, we propose the development of an online course following a mixed methods research design by employing the principles of ARCS model of motivational design linked with gamification elements. To achieve this, Moodle LMS has been chosen as the main platform, to deliver an online training course to EFL teachers of Greece. Taking into account teachers’ current needs, the course offers training on how they can design, develop and deliver effective online lessons. The learning content has been developed based on the strategies defined by ARCS model and it has been gamified accordingly. The proposed design framework can provide designers and teachers with beneficial practices to follow when developing online experiences of lifelong learning, in order to increase adult learners’ motivation and engagement.

Keywords: ARCS Model; Gamification; Online course; Moodle LMS; EFL teachers’ training; motivation; engagement.


Αυγουστής, Ι., Σοφός, Α., & Απόστολος, Κ. (2013). Χαρακτηριστικά παρωθητικών κινήτρων εκπαιδευτικού υλικού για την διαδικτυακή εξ αποστάσεως εκπαίδευση. Στο Α. Λιοναράκης (Επιμ.), 7ο Διεθνές Συνέδριο για την Ανοικτή & εξ Αποστάσεως Εκπαίδευση, 8-10 Νοεμβρίου 2013. Αθήνα. doi: 10.12681/icodl.541

Bakar, N. F. A., Yusof, A. F., Iahad, N. A., & Ahmad, N. (2017). Framework for embedding gamification in Massive Open Online Course (MOOC). 5th International Conference on Research and Innovation in Information Systems (ICRIIS), 16-17 July 2017 (pp. 1-5). Langkawi, Malaysia: IEEE

Pursel, B. K., Zhang, L., Jablokow, K. W., Choi, G. W., & Velegol, D. (2016). Understanding MOOC students: motivations and behaviours indicative of MOOC completion. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 32, 202– 217. doi: 10.1111/jcal.12131.

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